The Moselle (, ; ; ) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany. It is a left tributary of the Rhine, which it joins at Koblenz. A small part of Belgium is also drained by the Moselle through the Sauer and the Our.
The Moselle "twists and turns its way between Trier and Koblenz along one of Germany's most beautiful river valleys." It flows through a region that has been influenced by mankind since it was first cultivated by the Romans. Today, its hillsides are covered by terraced vineyards where "some of the best Rieslings grow", for 39 kilometres it forms the border between Germany and Luxembourg, and 208 kilometres are solely within Germany.
The Moselle flows through the Lorraine region, west of the Vosges. Further downstream, in Germany, the Moselle valley forms the division between the Eifel and Hunsrück mountain regions.
The average flow rate of the Moselle at its mouth is 328 m³/s, making it the second largest tributary of the Rhine by volume after the Aare (560 m³/s) and bigger than the Main and Neckar.
The River was canalised between Metz and Thionville, via a canal opened in 1964 by the Grand Duchess, Charlotte of Luxembourg, the Federal Chancellor of Germany, Konrad Adenauer and their host, General de Gaulle, President of France.
It is on the Moselle, at the site of the Franco-German-Luxembourg tripoint, that the Schengen Agreement was signed in 1992, establishing the free movement of goods and people in the European Community.
== Economy == The Moselle valley between Metz and Thionville is an industrial area, with coal mining and steel manufactures.
The Moselle valley is famous for its beautiful scenery and the excellent wine produced. Most well-known is the German Mosel wine region, while the Luxembourg winegrowing region is called Moselle Luxembourgeoise and the French region is called AOC Moselle. Most notable among the wines produced here are Riesling, Elbling, Müller-Thurgau, Kerner, and Auxerrois. The German part of the Moselle is a particularly popular tourist destination.
=== Navigation === After the Second World War, France pressed to be able to ply the Moselle with larger ships in order to be able to link the industrial regions of Lorraine. When, in 1955, the population on the Saar voted to belong to West Germany, France demanded as "compensation" an upgrade of the Moselle. On 27 October 1956 they concluded the Moselle Treaty with Germany and Luxembourg for a canalisation of the Moselle and conceded to Germany in return the extension of the Grand Canal d'Alsace on the Upper Rhine instead of an extension of the canal via Breisach. In 1958 work began and by 26 May 1964 the Moselle could be officially opened from Metz to Koblenz as a major waterway for shipping with 14 locks. France extended it by 1979 as far as Neuves-Maisons. With that, 394 km of the Moselle have been upgraded with a total of 28 locks. In the years 1992 to 1999 the navigable channel was deepened from 2.7 to 3.00 metres, which enables 1500-tonne freighters to use the river, a 20% increase in capacity. The channel has a width of 40 metres, more on the bends. The International Moselle Commission (IMK), founded in 1962 with its head office in Trier, is responsible for navigation. The Moselle Shipping Police Act which it has produced is valid in all three participant states i.e. from Metz to Koblenz.
In 1921 the Moselle (Mo) became a Reich waterway, from the Rhine in Koblenz up to Neuves-Maisons, south of Nancy. For smaller ships it is connected to other parts of France through the Canal de l'Est and the Canal de la Marne au Rhin. There are locks in Koblenz, Lehmen, Müden, Fankel, Sankt Aldegund, Enkirch, Zeltingen, Wintrich, Detzem, Trier, Grevenmacher, Palzem,
By 1970 more than 10 million tonnes of goods were being transported on the Moselle, the majority on towed barges. Upstream freight mainly comprised fuel and ores; downstream the main goods were steel products, gravel and rocks. There is an inland port at Trier, a transshipment site in Zell (Mosel); and there are other ports in Mertert, Thionville, Metz and Frouard. In addition to freighters there are also pleasure boats for tourists between the very busy wine villages and small towns of the Middle and Lower Moselle. There are also yachting or sports marinas in the following places: Koblenz, Winningen, Brodenbach, Burgen, Löf, Hatzenport, Senheim, Treis, Traben-Trarbach, Kues, Neumagen, Pölich, Schweich, Trier and Konz. The Moselle is linked near Toul via the Canal de la Marne au Rhin with inter alia the Meuse, the Saône and the Rhône. Other canals link the river to the North Sea and even the Mediterranean.
=== Locks and dams (weirs) ===
There is a total of 28 changes of level on the Moselle: * 16 in France near Neuves-Maisons, Villey-le-Sec, Toul, Fontenoy-sur-Moselle, Aingeray, Frouard-Pompey, Custines, Blénod-lès-Pont-à-Mousson, Pagny-sur-Moselle, Ars-sur-Moselle, Metz, Talange, Richemont, Thionville, Kœnigsmacker and Apach * 2 between Luxembourg and Germany near Stadtbredimus-Palzem and Grevenmacher-Wellen * 10 in Germany near Trier, Detzem, Wintrich, Zeltingen, Enkirch, St. Aldegund, Fankel, Müden, Lehmen and Koblenz. Detzem is the highest lock - 9 metres - and at 29 kilometres the upstream reach is the longest on the river; it is the only lock to be built on a canal of some length excavated outside the river bed.
With the exception of Detzem, all the structures at each change in level are laid out side by side; the lock is by one riverbank, the weir in the middle and the hydropower plant on the other bank. Between the lock and weir are a boat slipway/boat channel and boat lock, while between the weir and the power station is the fish ladder. The structures have been blended into the landscape through their low-level design; this was achieved by the choice of sector gates for the weir, vertically lowering upper gates and mitred lower lock gates. The water levels and hydropower works are controlled by the Fankel Central Control Station (Zentralwarte Fankel) of the RWE Power Company at Fankel.
=== Tourism ===
Through the Moselle valley run the Moselle Wine Road and the Moselle Cycleway, which may be cycled from Metz in France via Trier to Koblenz on the River Rhine, a distance of 311 kilometres. Between Koblenz and Trier, large sections run on the trackbed of the old Moselle Valley Railway, far from the noise and fumes of motor vehicles. Every year on the Sunday after Pentecost, the 140 kilometres of road between Schweich and Cochem is also car-free as part of the Happy Moselle Day.
A number of notable castles and ruins adorn the heights above the Moselle valley and many are visible on a boat trip on the Moselle.
In 1910, a hiking trail, the Moselle Ridgeway, was established which runs for 185 kilometres on the Eifel side and 262 kilometres on the Hunsrück side. Another unusual trail runs from Ediger-Eller via the Calmont Trail to Bremm through the steepest vineyard in Europe.
Before the construction of barrages the Moselle was a popular route for ustufen beliebter Wanderfluss für folding kayaks which is why many of the weirs have boat channels. The river is still used today by canoeists, especially during the annual week-long lock closures when no commercial shipping is permitted.
In April 2014 the Moselle Trail was opened, a path running for 365 kilometres from Perl on the Upper Moselle to Koblenz. Numerous Moselle Trail "partner trails", the so-called side branches (Seitensprünge) and "dream paths" (Traumpfade) enhance the hiking network in the Moselle Valley. in order to improve quality and value, which has led to a more nuanced view of Moselle wine that, a few years before, had been characterised by overproduction, label scandals and cheap offers.
=== Moselle umbrella brand === On 10 November 2006 in Burg the Moselle Regional Initiative was founded. The introduction of the Moselle as an umbrella brand was based on that of the Eifel region and covers products and services from the areas of agriculture, forestry, tourism, handicrafts and nature.
=== Moselle Slate === Moselle Slate (Moselschiefer) is a manufacturing and trade description for slate from the municipalities of Mayen, Polch, Müllenbach, Trier and its surrounding area. Today only products from the roofing slate mines of Katzenberg and Margareta in Mayen bear the name Moselle Slate. The name is derived from the historical transport route for this slate along the Moselle to the Lower Rhine. See also: Moselle Slate Road
==Literature== The Moselle was celebrated in Mosella, a Latin poem by Ausonius (4th century). In the 20th century, the river and the folklore and local history of the towns along its banks were described by British travel writer Roger Pilkington. In the tale, "The Seven Swabians" of the Brothers Grimm, the eponymous Swabians drown trying to cross the Moselle.
*Château de Meinsberg (dit de Malbrouck): near Manderen, this castle was built in the 15th century but rebuilt in the 1990s. Today it is used for numerous cultural events. *Château Fort de Sierck-les-Bains: situated just on the French-German border at Sierck-les-Bains, this fortress of the Duke of Lorraine dates back to the 11th century. Most of today's castle was constructed in the 18th century, following plans from Vauban. *Schloss Berg: a Renaissance castle at Nennig, today a hotel and a casino. *Alte Burg: a manor house built in 1360 at Longuich. One of the few surviving manor houses in rural Rhineland-Palatinate. *Schloss Lieser: a palace at Lieser built from 1884 to 1887 in historistic style. *Landshut Castle: a castle built by the Electorate of Trier in the 13th century at Bernkastel-Kues. *Grevenburg: ruins of a castle at Traben-Trarbach built by Johann III of Sponheim-Starkenburg about 1350, destroyed, after many sieges, in 1734. *Marienburg: a 12th-century castle and later monastery near Pünderich and Alf. *Arras Castle: a 12th-century castle in Alf. *Metternich Castle: a castle built around 1120 at Beilstein, today partly in ruins. *Cochem Castle: The castle in Cochem was originally built in the 11th century, but was completely destroyed by French soldiers in 1689. The present castle was rebuilt later in the 19th century. *Thurant Castle: Above the town of Alken is Thurant Castle, built in the 13th century. It is the only twin-towered castle along the Moselle. The fortress was built by the Count Palatine Henry of the house of Guelph between 1198 and 1206. From 1246 to 1248, it was the two archbishops of Cologne and Trier. Following conquest, it was divided by a partition wall into two halves, each with a keep (tower). During the 19th century, Thurant disintegrated, becoming a ruin; and in 1911 was acquired by Privy Councilor, Dr. Robert Allmers, who had it rebuilt. Since 1973, the castle has been owned by the Allmers and Wulf families. *Ehrenburg: a 12th-century castle built by the Electorate of Trier at Brodenbach. *Eltz Castle: The von Eltz family castle, whose history dates back to the 12th century. It remains in private hands to this day but it is open to visitors. *Lower and Upper Castle, Kobern-Gondorf: two 11th-century castles, today mostly in ruins. *Pyrmont Castle: This 13th-century castle near Roes was remodelled and extended several times during the Baroque era. *Bischofstein Castle: Across the river from the municipality of Burgen is this 13th-century castle, which was destroyed during the Nine Years' War, but was reconstructed and now serves as a retreat centre for the Fichte Gymnasium in Krefeld.
See also: [http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Castles_in_Rhineland-Palatinate Wikimedia Commons - Castles in Rhineland-Palatinate]
von Apach am Dreiländereck bis zu ihrer Mündung in den Rhein bei Rhein-km 592,29
== Bibliography ==
* Decimius Magnus Ausonius: Mosella [Description of a journey by ship on the Moselle around 371 A. D.]
* Jakob Hölscher (ed.): Das Moselthal von Trier bis Coblenz. In malerischen Ansichten, nach der Natur gezeichnet von C. Bodmer, in acqua tinta geätzt von R. Bodmer. 30 pages. Koblenz, 1831–1833
* Johann August Klein: Moselthal zwischen Koblenz und Konz, printed by Heriot, Coblenz, 1831
* Johann August Klein: Das Moselthal zwischen Koblenz und Zell mit Städten, Ortschaften, Ritterburgen, historisch, topographisch, malerisch. Heriot, Koblenz, 1831
* Wilhelm Haag: Ausonius und seine Mosella. Gaertner, Berlin, 1900
* Michael Gerhard: Die Mosel, dargestellt in ihrem Lauf, ihrer Entstehung und ihrer Bedeutung für den Menschen. Prüm, 1910. [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0128-1-17838 Online edition dilibri Rhineland-Palatinate]
* Carl Hauptmann: Die Mosel von Cochem bis Bernkastel. Bonn 1910. [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0128-1-18042 Online edition dilibri Rhineland-Palatinate]
* Carl Hauptmann: Die Mosel von Coblenz bis Cochem in Wanderbildern. Bonn, 1911. [http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0128-1-3137 Online edition dilibri Rhineland-Palatinate]
* Ludwig Mathar: Die Mosel (Die Rheinlande, Bilder von Land, Volk und Kunst, Zweiter Band: Die Mosel) Cologne o. J. (around 1925), 607 S. (with 117 illustrations and a map of the Moselle Valley from Trier to Coblenz)
* Rudolf G. Binding: Moselfahrt aus Liebeskummer – Novelle einer Landschaft, Frankfurt am Main, 1933 (51.–75. Tausend)
* Josef Adolf Schmoll alias Eisenwerth: Die Mosel von der Quelle bis zum Rhein (Deutsche Lande – Deutsche Kunst). 2nd edition, Munich/Berlin, 1972
* Willy Leson (ed.): Romantische Reise durch das Moseltal-Von Koblenz nach Trier (with graphics by Carl Bodmer and text by Johann August Klein and Christian von Stramberg), Cologne, 1978
* Heinz Cüppers, Gérard Collot, Alfons Kolling, Gérard Thill (Red.): Die Römer an Mosel und Saar (Zeugnisse der Römerzeit in Lothringen, in Luxemburg, im Raum Trier und im Saarland), Mainz, 1983, Zabern: 2nd revised edition (with 46 colour and 346 black and white photographs)
* Heinz Held: Die Mosel von der Mündung bei Koblenz bis zur Quelle in den Vogesen: Landschaft, Kultur, Geschichte (DuMont-Kunst-Reiseführer). 3rd edition, Cologne, 1989
* Jean-Claude Bonnefont, Hubert Collin (dir.), Meurthe-et-Moselle, edition Bonneton, Paris, 1996, 318 pages.
* M. Eckoldt (ed.), Flüsse und Kanäle, Die Geschichte der deutschen Wasserstraßen, DSV-Verlag, 1998
* Ulrich Nonn: Eine Moselreise im 4. Jahrhundert-Decimus Magnus Ausonius und seine "Mosella". In: Koblenzer Beiträge zur Geschichte und Kultur, Vol. 8, Koblenz: Görres-Verlag 2000, pp. 8–24 (with map and illustrations)
* Reinhold Schommers: Die Mosel (DuMont-Reise-Taschenbücher). DuMont, Ostfildern 2001,
* Ludwin Vogel: Deutschland, Frankreich und die Mosel. Europäische Integrationspolitik in den Montan-Regionen Ruhr, Lothringen, Luxemburg und der Saar. Klartext, Essen, 2001,
* Decimius Magnus Ausonius: Mosella. Lateinisch-deutsch. Published, translated and commented on by Paul Dräger. Tusculum Studienausgaben. Artemis und Winkler, Düsseldorf, 2004,
* Uwe Anhäuser: Die Ausoniusstraße. Ein archäologischer Reise- und Wanderführer. Rhein-Mosel, Alf/Mosel, 2006,
* Karl-Josef Gilles: Das Moseltal zwischen Koblenz und Trier 1920 bis 1950 (series of archive photographs), Sutton, Erfurt, 2006, .
* Wasser- und Schifffahrtsdirektion Südwest: Kompendium der Wasser- und Schifffahrtsdirektion Südwest. Organisatorische und technische Daten, Binnenschifffahrt, Aufgaben, Wasserstraßen. self-publication, Mainz, June 2007
* Alexander Thon / Stefan Ulrich: Von den Schauern der Vorwelt umweht... Burgen und Schlösser an der Mosel. Schnell + Steiner, Regensburg 2007, 1st edition, 180 pp. numerous photographs, 2 overview maps of the Moselle
* Wolfgang Lambrecht: Malerische Mosel – Gemälde und Druckgraphik aus 100 Jahren, [Farbbroschüre mit Werken u. a. von Carl Bodmer, Clarkson Stanfield, Rowbotham, Compton, Wolfsberger, Benekkenstein, Burger, Thoma, Nonn, Möhren, Zysing und Bayer, published by the Sparkasse Mittelmosel and the Lions-Förderverein Cochem], Cochem, 2007
* Karl-Josef Schäfer und Wolfgang Welter: Ein Jakobsweg von Koblenz-Stolzenfels nach Trier. Der Pilgerwanderführer für den Mosel-Camino. Books on Demand, Norderstedt, 2009 (2nd updated edition)
* Xavier Deru: Die Römer an Maas und Mosel, Zabern-Verlag, Mainz, 2010
* Groben, Josef: Mosella. Historisch-kulturelle Monographie, Trier, 2011, 311 pp., 237 photographs.
* Stefan Barme: Nacktarsch, Viez und Ledertanga – Ausflüge in die Kulturgeschichte des Mosellandes. Stephan Moll Verlag, 2012 (1st edition)
* Joachim Gruber: Decimus Magnus Ausonius, <
==External links== * [http://www.mosel.de/ mosel.de], mosel.de * [http://www.die-mosel.de/ Die Mosel], die-mosel.de * [http://www.moseltal.de/ Moseltal], moseltal.de * [http://www.mosel.com/ www.mosel.com], mosel.com * [http://hologuides.com/rivers/Moselle/ HoloGuides - Moselle], hologuides.com * [http://www.french-waterways.com/waterways/north-east/river-moselle/ River Moselle] guide to the French section; maps and information on places, ports and moorings on the river from Neuves-Maisons to Apach, by the author of Inland Waterways of France, Imray * [http://www.french-waterways.com/waterways/canals-rivers-france/ Navigation details for 80 French rivers and canals] (French waterways website section) * [http://www.ppl.nl/bibliographies/all/?bibliography=water Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law] Peace Palace Libray at ppl.nl * [http://www.webcam.cochem.com/ Livecam Moselle river], webcam.cochem.c * [http://www.moselkommission.org/ German-Luxembourgish-French Mosel Agency] (in German/French) * [http://www.wsa-tr.wsv.de/wasserstrasse/index.html German Waterways Agency Trier (Wasser- und Schifffahrtsamt Trier)] (in German)
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